This document has been assigned to understand the basic and essential concepts of database and Data Analysis Assignment Help. Some of the important concepts are referential integrity, data consistency, transparency, database relational models, and normalization and so on. Various database design approach has been implemented in this task such as data flow diagrams and entity relationship diagrams. The database skills will be improved after working on this case study of FTHC.
A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model, which uses a table-based format.
The models are as follows:
- Hierarchical database model
- Network model
- Relational model
- Entity relationship model
- Enhanced entity relationship model
- Object model
- Document model
- Entity attribute value model
The hierarchical database model is the model which defines the data structure in hierarchy form. This model manages the data in a tree structure.
The network model manages all the data of a database in the network model. The data in network model are interrelated and are connected with each other. This model defines the dependency of the data on each other.
The relational data model is the model which defines the relation of the data with each other. This model is used to show the relations between the data and their dependency.
The entity-relationship model is the model which is used to define the relation of the data with each entity of the database. This model is used to show the relationship between the data and the columns of the database.
The object model is the model which is used to define the dependency of the objects with the data. The data are shown with the relationship of the object.
The document model is used to define the use and the data of the database. This model provides a document for each of the data.
The database schema is the blueprint of the database which provides the name of the database and also all the columns which are associated with the database.
The different technologies of the database define the management of the database in different ways. Thus they have their own benefits. The different technologies give the benefits as follows:
- The hierarchy model provides a hierarchy model of the database.
- The network model provides the interconnectivity of the data in the database.
- The relational model provides the relationship between the data of the database. The data have dependency with each other which is defined under this type of model.
- The documentation model provides the document of the database as it defines all the tables of the database and also provides a detail of the motive and use of the table.
- The entity relationship model provides a way by which the relation between all the entities of the database is defined.
The drawbacks of the data model:
- The database model doesn’t provide a way how to use them.
- The database model sometime increases the complexity of the data.
- Many people are not familiar with the data model technique.
There are many approaches to the database design. Some of them are as follows:
- The main approach of a database design is DFD. By using a database design the DFD can be created easily. A DFD stands for the data flow diagram. This is the diagram which defines the flow of data between different levels of the database. The DFD also defines that where the data will be inserted or where the user will receive output. It also states the conditions to receive output. The DFD defines the data structure in the database.
- Another approach to database design is ERD. The ERD stands for the entity relationship diagram. These are those diagrams which define the relationship between the data of the database. This also defines the different levels of the relationship of the database. These diagrams are created to manage the database on the different level of relationship.
- The approach attribute and identifier define the different attributes of the different tables in the database. This also defines the identity of the attributes of the database of different tables.
- The approach relationship type defines the type of the relationship between the different attributes of the database. Such as the attribute is the primary key, foreign key or what kind of attributes is used in different tables of the database and how they are associated with each other.
- The database approach also defines that what kind of enterprise is. Such as the enterprise is a big or a small firm.
- The database approach also normalizes the data which is stored in the database. This approach removes the redundant data and other redundancy of the data. The data approach also manages the storage of data in different fields as well as in different level.
The answer number 1.3 explains all the real world problems which occur when there is the analyze of the database in any enterprise or in any firm. The above approach of the database solves many problems of the database which are to define the database for the real world and also solves the problems these suits the real world in the following way:
- The first way where the problem suits are the way where the user needs the connection between different data of the database. This approach also provides an efficient way where the user can get the interconnection of the data at a different level. This problem also matches with the data schema and provides a solution for the data integrity and data management.
- Another approach of the database solves the problem of the data hierarchy in which data are managed at different levels with the different methods. These also used to manage the data at the different data level.
- The approach relational database defines the data with the different relations. The approach also defines the relations between the tables and the entity and also provides a way where the user can meet the requirements of the user level.
- The ERD is also an approach to the database which is designed to meet the requirement of the database. The ERD specifies the relationship between the entity of the relations so the user can meet the specifications which a database design have. This also illustrates the motive behind the ERD.
The MySQL is used for the implementation of the database system. I have created DFD and ERD using online tool. Its interface can be enhanced more by applying various buttons clicking mechanism.
Figure 7 ER diagram using crow foot notation
2.5 Critical evaluation of work.
- The evaluation of the given problem is as follows:
- The given problem is related to the FTHC hospital which manages all the equipment and all the necessary requirements.
- This hospital also manages the basic facility for all the doctors who book their arrival for the join.
- The hospital manages all the equipment and also allot the room for the doctor. For this registration, the doctor needs to register two weeks before and then need to send proofs for the validation and verification of data.
- All the related patients are notified the arrival of the doctor and then their appointment is fixed.
- Now the all the fees for the related doctor are submitted to the hospital. Finally, when the doctor leaves the hospital he/she got all the payment.
- The patients need to register and also need to give proofs for the booking confirmation. The patient also needs to submit the documents regarding the booking.
- All the data for the given problem are managed using the relational database. The data are interconnected and dependent on each other.
- The data of the given problem are managed with the concept of primary key and the foreign key.
- The strength of the solution is that it manages all the data in the relational database and it manages all the doctors and the patients also in an organized way so the data of these all can be managed easily. The data are interrelated and managed in a relational database so the data insertion and management is very easy.
- The weakness of the given problem is the complexity. As the data are managed in a relational database so it has increased the complexity of the data. Thus as increased complexity, it’s very tough to delete or update the tables in the database thus it needs to change all the database as well as data dependency.
Read More About Software Requirement Specification Assignment Help
- The manipulation and query tools in a database are used to manage the data in the database as well as it is also used to insert data into the database. The benefits of using these tools are as follows:
- The benefit of the insertion tool is that by using this data in the table of the database can be inserted form anywhere or without providing database details to everyone else the user need to open the database or then only the user can insert the data. So to modify the traditional approach and to make the data insertion easy the insert tool is used.
- The benefit of the update tool is that by using this modification of the data can be done easily without applying extra effort. This modification takes place when the user needs to update the existing data in the database.
- the other tool such as alter is used to alter the column in a table as to insert a new column or to delete the existing column, delete tool is used to delete any data entry from the database, drop tool is used to delete a complete table from the database, the truncate tool is used to delete all the data from the table.
- The select query is used to get data from the table of a database.
- The select query can also be used with a specific condition in such a way so that only the desired data will be received in output.
- The query language is used to extract data from the database. The main query language to get all the data is by using the select query. If the user uses simple select query the then he/she will get all the details but the select command can be conditional as if the user need to get only the desired data then need to use the conditional query language. This conditional query language uses the where clause. By using this conditional query language the user can receive the following details:
- The user can also update the details of the doctor as well of the patients in any case if the data are wrong.
- the user can get the hospital details as well all the staff detail and the patients detail who have received their treatment or interested in receiving the details of the new patients who have to register them self to receive the treatment.
- The user can also receive the notification for the new doctor arrives and also the details of the new treatment if any available.
- The user can also get a list of the doctors who are available in the hospital or have visited the hospital.
Please see the PPT for the same.
The review of the created database is that the created database meets all the requirements which the user have behind the creation of the database. This also analyses the requirements of the user as well the reason behind the creation of such database. This database also reviews all the requirements of the user.
The created database shows the relation between the table and the entity. The data schema shows the attributes and their properties and also the ERD shows the entity relationship. The network form shows the connectivity. The hierarchy form manages data in a tree structure. The normalization manages the data integrity, redundancy, and the data connection.
Thus the solution of the given problem meets all the requirements and full fills them.
The documentation for the relation database
- The purpose behind the creation of the relational database is to manage the data dependency with another attribute.
- This approach also shows the relations of the data which they have with each other this method also represent the data interconnectivity.
- To implement this approach the dependency of the data was checked now the attributes dependency was defined and finally, the data are managed in the form so that the attribute on which the other attributes can be defined easily were selected and finally these attributes were defined as the primary key and as the foreign key.
- Now on the basis of these keys, the other tables were connected with each other.
- So the best way of implementing the relational database is by defining the primary key or foreign key. So the major dependency of the data can be calculated and the database can be managed easily in the database or the relational database can be managed easily.
Read more about Database Management Assignments Help
- The user needs to know all the attributes of the tables of a database.
- After knowing all the tables the user also needs to manage these all attributes such that the related attributes can be managed in a single table.
- The user needs to know the key attributes of the entire table by which the other attribute of the table can be defined easily.
- The next thing which the user needs to do is to find the unit key among these all keys on which the data are dependent or the other data can get or set easily.
- The key which the user selects must be the unique key.
- Now the user needs to define the primary key or the foreign key. On the basis of these two keys, the user can define the relationship or the tables or the interconnection of different attributes in different tables.
- The user also needs to normalize the data so the user can remove the redundancy of the data and also the user can manage the integrity of the data.
The meaning of the verification and the validation is to verify and validate the data which are inserted into the database.
The verification stands for the verification of the data thus the data which is inserted in the database are related to the same user or not. Thus this verification can be done by sending mail on the mail id or by sending SMS on the mobile. Thus these both tasks are done when the user makes the user insert his/her details and save them all in the database. Thus the verification is necessary so that the correct user can be defined easily. The validation meaning to validate the data as the data currently exists or not. If the data exists meaning the data are correct else the data is incorrect. This validation may be session validation as for any website a session is created by which the user time is managed if the user is not responding for a time then the session will expire and the user connection needs to reset. So the validation checks the data availability is present.
The validation and verification of data are necessary for such a way to the correct user or the correct data be managed else the data consistency will fail to respond.
The data also need to be filtered on the basis of a unique id. This unique id may be an email id or the phone number.
The control mechanism is used to control the data as to maintain the consistency of data also to reduce the redundancy.
The control mechanism is as follows:
- Under the control mechanism, the data which are inserted are defined under a unique attribute if the value of the unique attribute is repeated then the user will not be able in inserting the data.
- In above case, the data can only be updated no insertion is possible.
- Except this, there is a concept relational database as all the attributes of the database are interrelated so all the attributes of the data are interrelated and can be defined with the help of the same unique id.
- The control mechanism is to manage the data connectivity as the data should be unique and must be integrated.
- The data must not be repeated or the verify data should be inserted not all the data.
- The testing of the solution provides the following results:
- Whenever any patient registers he/she got their unique id or password to which they can log in. If the same user registers again he/she receives a notification such as already registered.
- The testing has tested the solution on all the levels of complexity.
- Also tested that any data is repeated or not. If the data repetition is found then it is checked that how to reduce this redundancy.
- Under testing, all the conditions on which the bugs can occur are tested so to manage these all bugs and to handle all the expectation the testing checks all handlers.
- the testing also tests all the requirements such as tests that the data which are getting inserted are in correct form or not, the data are verified or not, the data are validated or not. If anything is found wrong or not working well then the solution must be implemented again.
- The testing also estimates the upcoming error in any case so the user can handle these all needs and can provide an efficient way to manage these all.
4.7 Evaluate your thought and innovation to provide the suggestion that will support your database system.
The solution created for the proposed system meets all the requirements of the problems and also suits with the system.
In the solution, there is a health center which works as admin. The admin needs to manage three things. The first thing is the specialists, the second thing is the patients and the last thing is the center. The admin under hospital management provides individual room to all the doctors and also provide the needed equipment so the doctor can provide an effective treatment to all the patients. Under doctor management, the admin manages the arrival of the doctor. To provide the facility in the hospital the doctor needs to register before 2weeks. After registration, the doctor needs to provide the proof certificates of the arrival. The hospital now will allocate the room and the equipment to the doctor. The admin will also suit a notification so all the patients can have details of the doctor arrived.
Under patient management, the patient needs to register itself. The patient also needs to provide the proof certificates. If the related doctor is available the admin will provide details of the doctor with the available timing and will book the appointment. The management will also keep the history of the patient as well the doctor. The admin will also manage the history of the treatment and will also manage the treatment and payment record which was given to the specialist when he left the center.
Thus here the superpower is management who manages all the levels of the hospital internally or externally. There is the requirement of the Centre to provide the relation of the doctor with the patient. So these all are managed by using the relational database thus managed by the primary key or the foreign key. This solution provides an efficient way to manage the hospital with its entire staff as doctor and patient and other staff.
Read more about Technical Assignment Help
This report has been made keeping in mind the concepts of database design and query implementation. I have got through various concepts DBMS such as attributes, entities, validations and key concepts like primary key, foreign key, and normalization and so on. I have got the better understanding of database models and their testing methodologies. This assignment really helped me making my database concepts strong and convenient to work with.
www.tutorialspoint.com, (2015). Database Tutorials. [online] Available at: http://www.tutorialspoint.com/database_tutorials.htm [Accessed 21 Dec. 2015].
Docs.mongodb.org, (2015). Data Modeling Concepts — MongoDB Manual 3.0. [online] Available at: https://docs.mongodb.org/v3.0/core/data-models/ [Accessed 21 Dec. 2015].
Rayan, J. (2015). Data modelling using ERD with Crow Foot Notation – CodeProject. [online] Codeproject.com. Available at: http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/878359/Data-modelling-using-ERD-with-Crow-Foot-Notation [Accessed 21 Dec. 2015].
Shukla, K. (2009). Data Flow Diagram – DFD: What is DFD ? or What is Data Flow Diagram?. [online] Dataflowdiagram.blogspot.in. Available at: http://dataflowdiagram.blogspot.in/2009/10/what-is-dfd-or-what-is-data-flow.html [Accessed 21 Dec. 2015].
Techopedia.com, (2015). What is Data Extraction? – Definition from Techopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/25328/data-extraction [Accessed 21 Dec. 2015].